Here, I will discuss the current status of research directed at understanding the roles of these enzymes in insect development and metabolism. In Nilaparvata lugens, miR-2703 targets chitin synthase A to affect the development of nymphs by reducing their chitin content and injection or feeding of miR-2703 mimic causes a lethal phenotype (Chen et al., 2020). Understanding these mechanisms will allow us to develop biomimetic tools, including agricultural and surgical tools, that can both cut and steer through diverse substrates. In tropical environments, Oriental fruit flies breed throughout the year. Bactrocera Bactrocera dorsalis Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Order: Diptera Family: Tephritidae Subfamily: Dacinae Tribe: Dacini Genus: Bactrocera Macquart, 1835 Type species Bactrocera longicornis Macquart, 1835 Species B. correcta B. dorsalis B. oleae B. tryoni B. zonata Hundreds more Diversity 464 species Synonyms Aglaodacus Munro, 1984 Apodacus Perkins, 1939 Chaetodacus Bezzi, 1913 Dasyneura Saunders, 1842 Hemigymnodacus Hardy, 1973 Mar… Romig, 2013. Results. Not shown on map: Bactrocera dorsalis has also been reported in Queensland, Australia 33 [1]Draft Annex to ISPM 27 – Bactrocera dorsalis complex (2006-026) [1] Status box[2] [2] [3]This is not an official part of the standard, and it will be modified by the IPPC Secretariat after adoption. Bactrocera dorsalis was first described by Friedrich Hendel as Dacus dorsalis in the "Entomologischen Mitteilungen" or "Entomological Messages" in 1912. What led to this decision was in particular, the scutum colour of the Kenyan specimens which ranged "from pale red-brown to black with the existence of variable lanceolate-patterned intermediates". In M. fimbriolata protein digestion is supposed to be associated with the inactivation of sap noxious proteins, making CAB sufficient as digestive CP. Image: Malcolm Storey © Copyright, Information: Plant Health Australia8 Abdominal terga free, except I and II. Tergum III (males) with pecten. Wing costal band width from vein subcostal to slightly below vein R4+5 at wing apex; confluent with vein R2+3 in depth. Image: Arina Adom. Young males often disperse over several kilometres before reaching sexual maturity and finding its mate! Hemipteran genomes and transcriptome data showed that CALs have been recruited as digestive enzymes only in heteropterans, whereas digestive CABs occur in all hemipterans. . (accessed on 14 Nov 2016). Femora largely fulvous. B. Heppner, J. L. Nation, and G. J. Steck2 1. Drosophila melanogasterFamily: Drosophilidae. Considerably more proteins lacking signal peptide are present in the late pupae, suggesting that plasma contains relatively low concentrations of intracellular components released from remodeling tissues during metamorphosis. cycle is summarised in the following figure. Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly) Datasheet,” by Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International. Figure 19: Holotype of Dacus ferrugineus Fabricius located in the Natural History Museum of Denmark. The white, elongate and elliptical egg measures about 1.17 x 0.21 mm and has a chorion without sculpturing. Cell costal with microtrichia in the anterodistal corner only. These species have been recognised as possibly the world’s most important pests of horticulture6 Figure 13: African distribution of Bactrocera dorsalis.Key: Black- Present, no further details; Blue- Widespread; Red- Localised; Image credit: Image credit: Copyright © 2016 Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International (CABI) 32, Bactrocera dorsalis was accidentally introduced in the United States between 1944 to 1945 and is now present and a major threat on all major Hawaiian islands21, Figure 14: Pacific Islands distribution of Bactrocera dorsalis.Key: Black- Present, no further details; Blue- Widespread; Image credit: Copyright © 2016 Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International (CABI)32. Bactrocera dorsalis is native to tropical Asian countries such as Singapore, India, Malaysia and Bangladesh. Figure 1: Oriental fruit flies on a fruit. S. Vijaysegaran and A.G. Ibrahim), pp. In certain fruit types, maggot infestation results in tissue breakdown and internal rotting associated with maggot infestation, but this varies with the type of fruit attacked. Abdominal terga free, except I and II. Affected young fruit tend to become distorted, callused and usually drop prematurely whereas affected mature fruits develop a water soaked appearance. The hAT-family transposable element, hopper, from Bactrocera dorsalis is a functional vector for insect germline transformation Alfred M. Handler1* and Marc F. Schetelig2 Abstract Background: The hopper hAT-family transposable element isolated from the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis,is Other scientific names. “Mpumalanga citrus farmers hit hard by Oriental Fruit Flies,” by SABC Digital News. The general survey guidelines b. It is a member of the family Tephritidae, which are the most agriculturally important family of flies, and can be considered an out-group to well-studied members of the family Drosophilidae. Illumina HiSeq sequencing of small RNAs allowed the identification of conserved and novel miRNAs, as well as isomiRs. Medial vitta of scutum absent. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a destructive agricultural pest causing severe economic losses to more than 600 kinds of fruits and vegetables, such as citrus and chili peppers, and has been listed as a quarantine pest in many countries and regions (Chen et al., 2019). 1. Lectotype ♀ in The Natural History Museum, London, U.K. Shiraki, 1933; Hardy & Adachi, 1956; Hardy, 1969, Hardy & Adachi, 1956; Hardy, 1969; 1973; 1974, Drew & Hancock, 1994; Norrbom et al., 1998; Mahmood & Hasan, 2005; White, 2006; Drew et al., 2007, Lectotype designation by Drew & Hancock, 1994, Holotype in HEIQ; synonymized by Drew & Romig, 2013: 76. The Oriental fruit fly is highly polyphagous and is able to feed on and infest a large variety of produce from fruits, vegetables and other plants. White, I.M., Elson-Harris, M.M., 1994. Significance of fruit flies in fruit and vegetable production in the Asia-Pacific region. All nodes <0.5 are collapsed. Changes in miRNA profiles have been observed and implicated as regulators of many biological processes, including development (Matsunami et al., 2019; Nouzova et al., 2018), reproduction (Chen et al., 2017; Tariq et al., 2016a), immune responses (Li et al., 2019a; Yin et al., 2018), metamorphosis (Wang et al., 2017; Ylla et al., 2017), and insecticide resistance (Seong et al., 2019; Zhou et al., 2019). Main conclusions: We provide evidence of the competitive displacement induced by B. dorsalis on other established species. Using RNA-sequencing, the transcription profile and function of several, sex-biased miRNAs and miRNAs involved in spermatogenesis have been investigated in this pest insect (Peng et al., 2016; Tariq et al., 2016a). In this study, we measured the profile of small RNAs over the developmental transitions of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis from egg hatching, molting, and pupation to adult eclosion. Whereas tip hardening is key to their ability to penetrate surfaces, it is often also important for probes to be maneuverable through substrates. The wings are clear (d). Although its' name does not illicit much response here in Singapore, in countries such as the United States and Kenya, the mention of the Oriental fruit fly will send agricultural farmers, fruit vendors, immigration authorities fuming mad. Often, much damage can occur before any obvious signs of infestation within a fruit are even observed. 15 Their Identification and Bionomics. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. In countries such as Cambodia and China, Figure 12: Asian distribution of Bactrocera dorsalis. Lipophagy is the process of lipid degradation by selective autophagy, where autophagosomes sequester lipid droplets and degrade triacylglycerol (TAG) generating free fatty acids for β-oxidation. The adult, which is noticeably larger than a house fly, has a body length of about 7.0-8.0 mm; the wing is about 7.3 mm in length. The oriental fruitfly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most invasive, multivoltine and polyphagous members of the Tephritidae family. These countries guard heavily against the introduction of the Oriental fruit fly through immigration in hopes of avoiding massive economic loss to agricultural farmers. B. dorsalis s.s. (purple), B. papayae (dark blue), B. philippinensis (light blue) and B. carambolae (green)]. Gif made using. The prolonged difficulties in differentiating putative species, coupled with the highly disjunct geographic distribution of closely-related species within the, species complex, has resulted in grouping errors in the form of separate populations of, worldwide being described as new separate Bactroceran species, One example of a grouping error was a group of, specimens detected in Kenya in 2003. The Oriental fruit fly, = em>Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel= , 1912), is a member of the Tephritidae (fruit flies) family. . 4, p. 609. Some of its larval hemolymph proteins are well studied, and a detailed proteomic analysis of larval plasma proteins became available in 2016, revealing features such as correlation with transcriptome data, formation of immune complexes, and constitution of an immune signaling system in hemolymph. After removal of low quality reads, a total of 1031.37 M clean reads were obtained from the 10 samples. although the specimen is nearly entirely destroyed, the taxonomically informative ‘red-brown’ colour of the thorax is still evident (See Fig.19), Figure 19: Holotype of Dacus ferrugineus Fabricius located in the Natural History Museum of Denmark. Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Kuala Lumpur. Image adapted from Okinawa Prefectural Fruit Fly Eradication Project Office34. . Usually approximately 60-80% the length of the larva, Figure 17: Eggs of the Oriental fruit fly. In the present study, a total of 250 miRNAs was identified, including 83 known and 167 novel miRNAs, and 47. Weems, J.B. Heppner, James L. Nation & Gary Steck. Field Evaluation of Oriental Fruit Fly Insecticides in Hawaii. . Furthermore, for a number of miRNAs with potentially important regulatory functions, detailed studies have been performed. Help. Video 2: News report of the impacts of Oriental fruit fly infestations in Mpumalanga, South Africa. CARS-26) and the Foundation Project of Southwest University (Grant No. . After comparison with B. dorsalis specimens from the purported native range of Sri Lanka, the Kenyan material was described as a new species, Bactrocera invadens 40 Video credits 25. Larvae (commonly known as maggots) develop within the fruit10 The external part of the anterior respiratory organs, the spiracles, located one on each side of the pointed or head end of the larva, has an exaggerated and deflexed lobe at each side and bears many small tubercles. This was in contrast with the, description in which the scutum had been defined as "strictly black", . Figure 22: Phylogenetic reconstruction based on sequence data for specimens for which all six loci were sequenced for Bactrocera spp. Drew, R.A.I.& M.C. From a physical perspective, cutting involves creation of new free surfaces. The cutting parts of insects, such as their mandibles or ovipositor tips, are often zinc-enriched and hardened as compared to the other cuticular regions. Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) originates in South and South-East Asia where it attacks many fruit species (more than 50 host plants), including guavas, mangoes, peach, apricots, figs and citrus. . 3, a subsection of the combined molecular phylogenetic tree for Diptera. In tropical environments, Oriental fruit flies breed throughout the year. Once mature, the flies emerge from their puparia as adult flies. Dataset of PCG123, 1 and 3, PCG123RNA, 2 and 4, PCG12, 5 and 7, PCG12RNA, 6 and 8. The following are the synonyms of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, 1912) listed in the paper 36 The larval tunnels subsequently provide entry points for bacteria and fungi that cause the fruit to rot further. Noncoding RNAs, such as long noncoding RNAs, small interfering RNAs, piwi-interacting RNAs, circular RNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs), play important regulatory roles in many physiological processes including development, cancer, immunity, apoptosis and host-microbe interactions. Help pages, FAQs, UniProtKB manual, documents, news archive and Biocuration projects. SWU019033). The genus includes approximately 500 species. All nodes <0.5 are collapsed. In 1995, Oriental fruit fly established near Cairns and cost $33.5 million and took 4 years to eradicate, Native to the tropical Asian region, the fruit flies have spread throughout the world and become a prominent pest species across multiple continents. Young males often disperse over several kilometres before reaching sexual maturity and finding its mate! The long history of host and virus co-evolution suggests that the virus keeps on evolving its arsenals to succeed in infection whereas the host continues investing in antiviral defense mechanisms. They compose a class of small (approximately 22 nt) endogenous single-stranded RNAs that are evolutionarily conserved and interact with their target transcripts to induce degradation or suppress translation at the post-transcriptional level (Matsunami et al., 2019; Nouzova et al., 2018). However, albeit their similar common names, Drosophila melanogaster, the Common fruit fly, does not belong to the same family as Bactrocera dorsalis, the Oriental fruit fly; Drosophila melanogaster belongs to the family Drosophilidae whilst Bactrocera dorsalis belongs to the family Tephritidae (See Figure 3). The posterior spiracles are located in the dorsal third of the segment as viewed from the rear of the larva, Figure 16: Larvae of the Oriental fruit fly. Scutum colour (other than vittae) red-brown to black. 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